Bergsteiner, H. & Avery, G.C. 2007.

Adapting accountability responses to leadership context.

International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 2(2), 411-420.

This paper attempts to reconcile differences in the literature on how accountability systems are conceptualised and implemented, by examining context. The accountability and leadership literature reflects various bipolar streams of thought – control versus self-control, sanctions versus rewards, and micro- versus macro-accountability. These differences in emphasis can be understood by considering these bipolar dimensions in the context of different leadership cultures. Classical and transactional leadership paradigms tend to be associated with control, sanctioning and micro-accountability, whereas visionary and organic leadership cultures emphasize self-control, rewards and macro-accountability.


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